Intracranial pressure response after pharmacologic treatment of intracranial hypertension.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Jul;77(1):47-53.
Patients older than 17 years, admitted and requiring ICP monitoring between 2008 and 2010 at a high-volume urban trauma center, were retrospectively evaluated. Timing and dose of ICP-directed therapy were recorded from paper and electronic medical records. ICP data were collected automatically at 6-second intervals and from manual charts
A total of 117 patients met inclusion criteria; 450 treatments were administered when nursing records indicate an ICP greater than 20 mm Hg, while 968 treatments were given when ICP was greater than 20 mm Hg by automated data.
Pharmacologic treatments identified include hypertonic saline (HTS), mannitol, barbiturates, and dose escalations of propofol or fentanyl infusions.
Treatment with HTS resulted in the largest ICP decrease of the treatments examined, with a 1-hour ICP reduction of 8.8/9.9 mm Hg (for a small/large dose) according to manual data and a reduction of 3.0/2.4 mm Hg according to automated data. Propofol and fentanyl escalations resulted in smaller but significant ICP reductions. Mannitol (n = 8) resulted in statistically insignificant trends down in the first hour but rebounded by the second hour after administration. The average ICP in the hour before medication administration was higher for barbiturates (27 mm Hg) and mannitol (32 mm Hg) than for the other interventions (18-19 mm Hg).