Asleep Versus Awake: Does It Matter?: Pediatric Regional Block Complications by Patient State: A Report From the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.
Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014 Jun 10.
The investigators analized more than 50,000 pediatric regional anesthesia blocks from an observational prospective database, and determined the rate of adverse events in relation to the patient's state at the time of block placement. Primary outcomes considered were postoperative neurologic symptoms (PONSs) and local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Secondary outcome was extended hospital stay due to a block complication.
Postoperative neurological symptoms occurred at a rate of 0.93/1000 (confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.2) under GA and 6.82/1000 (CI, 4.2-10.5) in sedated and awake patients.
The only occurrence of PONSs lasting longer than 6 months (PONSs-L) was a small sensory deficit in a sedated patient (0.019/1000 [CI, 0-0.1] for all, 0.48/1000 [CI, 0.1-2.7] for sedated patients).
There were no cases of paralysis.
There were 5 cases of LAST or 0.09/1000 (CI, 0.03-0.21). The incidence of LAST in patients under GA (both with and without NMB) was 0.08/1000 (CI, 0.02-0.2) and 0.34/1000 (CI, 0-1.9) in awake/sedated patients.
Extended hospital stays were described 18 times (0.33/1000 [CI, 0.2-0.53]). The rate for patients under GA without NMB was 0.29/1000 (CI, 0.13-0.48); GA with NMB, 0.29/1000 (CI, 0.06-0.84); sedated, 1.47/1000 (CI, 0.3-4.3); and awake, 1.15/1000 (CI, 0.02-6.4).
They conclude that the placement of regional anesthetic blocks in pediatric patients under GA is as safe as placement in sedated and awake children.